2008년 3월 23일에 시행한 법원직 (법원서기보직) 9급 공무원 시험 영어 기출문제입니다.

【문 1】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분에 함축된 뜻은?
  It was in the spring of his thirty-fifth year that father married my mother, then a country school teacher, and in the following spring I came crying into the world. Something happened to the two people. They became ambitious. The American passion for getting up in the world took possession of them. It may have been that mother was responsible. Being a school teacher, she had no doubt read books and magazines. She had, I suppose, read of Garfield, Lincoln, and other Americans rose from poverty to fame and greatness and as I lay beside she may have dreamed that I would some day rule men and cities.
① 위대한 어머니에 대한 나의 존경심
② 나의 출세에 대한 어머니의 야심
③ 아버지와 어머니 사이의 깊은 사랑
④ 행복하고 평화로운 나의 어린시절

1.  문장 중간에 나오는 ambitious가 중요한 단서를 제공하고 있다. 부모가 자식에 대해서 ambitious하다는 것은 자식이 출세하기를 바란다는 의미이다. She was ambitious for her son.=She wanted her son to succeed. 밑줄 친 부분의 내용도 물론 어머니가 나의 출세를 원했다는 것을 말해준다.

【문 2】다음 글의 문맥상 주어진 문장이 들어가야 할 가장 적절한 곳은?
 But nature has solved this problem for the flounder.

The flounder is a kind of flatfish. The odd thing about this fish is that both its eyes are on the same side of its head. ( ① ) Flounder are not born that way, though. When a flounder hatched, it looks like any other fish. As it grows, however, its body becomes flattened. ( ② ) One side of the fish is white and the other is a sandy color. The flounder lies on its white side on the ocean floor. Its sandy-colored side faces up. ( ③ ) This makes the flounder blend in with the sand, so it can`t be easily seen. For any other fish, this would cause a problem. One eye would be looking right into the sand. ( ④ ) As the fish grows, the eye on the bottom moves to the upper side.

2.  ④
 주어진 문장에 this problem이 있고, ④번 앞쪽 문장에 있는 a problem으로 보아, 주어진 문장의 위치는 ④임을 곧 알 수 있다. ④번 뒤에서는 그 문제가 어떻게 해결되는지 구체적으로 설명되어 있다.

【문 3】다음 글을 읽고 아래 질문의 답을 고르시오.
The common plant starch-found in flour, cereal grains and potatoes-is built of glucose. Starch can be split in several ways and eventually yields glucose. Digestion is one such way. After digestion takes place the glucose goes into the blood and is burned. Some glucose may not be burned. The liver takes it and converts it to glycogen. The body then stores this glycogen until the body is hungry, at which time it is digested again.

* When is glycogen used by the body?
   ① After it has been split.
② Shortly after being burned.
③ Once the body has stored it.
④ When the body needs energy.

3.  ④
 본문에 따르면 소화과정에서 연소되지 않은 포도당(glucose)을 간이 글리코겐으로 전환시키고, 신체가 이 글리코겐을 배고플 때까지 저장하고 있다가, 배고플 때 글리코겐이 다시 소화된다고 한다. 따라서 신체가 글리코겐을 사용하는 시기는 배고플 때, 즉 신체가 에너지를 필요로 할 때이다.

【문 4】다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은?
Hibernation of bears presents several wonders to us. Although they are mammals, their life is a repetition of winter sleep and a preparation period unlike humans. Basically, the bear stocks up energy before winter and expends it during hibernation. In the process, the bear's body goes through drastic change. The preparation for hibernation starts as early as summer. Bears gain weight up to 15kg to 20kg per week by eating everything available. The energy is stored in the form of fat under the skin, which grows inches thick at its peak.
As winter approaches, the bear slows down its activity and eventually goes into a winter sleep in its cave. The bear sleeps until winter is over unless it gets disturbed. During the winter, the bear does not eat or drink for almost 100 days, and it loses between 15% to 40% of its weight just by sleeping. Despite the tremendous change in the body, virtually every single bear survives this long starvation period. In late spring, when the food is in great supply again, the bear walks out from the cave and resumes its life.
   ① 곰은 겨울에 엄청난 양의 음식을 섭취한다.
② 다수의 곰이 겨울에 영양실조로 사망한다.
③ 곰은 늦은 겨울에 이미 잠에서 깨어난다.
④ 곰의 겨울잠 준비는 여름부터 시작된다.

4.  ④
 본문에 곰의 겨울잠준비가 여름부터 시작된다("The preparation for hibernation starts as early as summer.")고 나와 있다.

【문 5】다음 글의 밑줄 친 ①~④ 중 글의 전체 흐름과 관계없는 문장은?
Many experts think that the artists in prehistoric times believed they captured the animal's soul when they painted it. ①This could be why the images are so lifelike. ②According to their belief, if the artists captured an animal's true likeness, they would be sure to capture the real thing during the hunt. ③Prehistoric men hunted bulls, bison and mammoths for their survival. ④Whatever the paintings meant, surely no one would have crawled so deep into these caves to paint had the pictures not had a special meaning. The dark caves were sacred places for prehistoric people, and this art was part of their beliefs.

5.  ③
 이 글은 선사시대 사람들이 그린 동굴벽화의 의미에 관한 글이므로 ③은 글의 흐름에서 벗어나 있다.

【문 6】다음 문장의 내용상 부분에 가장 적절한 말은?
The candidate vowed to _______ public schools with new textbooks and cutbacks in taxes but failed to act on either promise once he was elected.
① purchase
② sell
③ address
④ provide

6.  ④
provide/furnish/supply A with B : A에게 B를 제공․ 공급하다

【문 7】다음 글의 부분에 들어갈 어법에 맞는 표현은?
Although ____________ instant critical acclaim in 1952, he never completed a second novel, publishing many short works instead.
① Invisible Man was the first novel by Ralph Ellison received
② first received by Ralph Ellison, the novel Invisible Man was
③ Ralph Ellison's first novel, Invisible Man, received
④ Ralph Ellison's first novel, Invisible Man, was received

7.  ③
Ralf Ellison의 첫 소설인 Invisible Man은 1952년 발간 즉시 비평가로부터 격찬을 받았지만, 그는 결코 제 2의 다른 소설을 완성하지 못했고 대신 짧은 작픔들을 많이 출판했다.

【문 8】다음 글의 밑줄 친 ① ~ ④ 중 어법상 잘못된 것은?
Teach your teen that the family phone ①is for the whole family. If your child talks on the family's telephone excessively, tell him he can talk for 15 minutes, but then ②he must stay off the phone for at least an equal amount of time. This not only frees up the line so that other family members can make and receive calls, ③but teaching your teen moderation and discipline. Or if you are not open to the idea, allow your talkative teen his own phone ④that he pays for with his allowance or a part-time jobs.

8.  ③ but teaching → but teaches
and, but, or 등의 등위접속사 뒤에서 늘 병렬구조에 주의한다.

【문 9】다음 글의 내용을 가장 잘 표현한 속담은?
Mr. Jones, the owner of a small company, wanted to bring his nephew Carl, into the business. At first he sent Carl out on the road selling, but he didn't make many sales. Then he tried Carl in the manufacturing department, but Carl was too thorough and took too much time. Then he tried Carl in human resources, but Carl was too kind and the other employees took advantage of him. Finally, Mr. Jones put Carl in customer relations, and he was wonderful! He was kind to all who called, and made everyone happy. The customers were pleased and spread the word to all their friends about Mr. Jones' great company.
① Where there is a will, there is a way.
② Every man has his own trade.
③ One man's music is another man's noise.
④ Everybody's business is nobody's business.

9.    ②
Every man has his own trade. (속담) 사람은 제각기 장기[전문 분야]가 있다. 

【문10】다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈 칸 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 말로 적절한 것은?
In 1960, presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy agreed to a series of debates, which were broadcast simultaneously on television and radio. According to surveys, most radio listeners felt that Nixon had won the debates, while television viewers picked the younger, more photogenic Kennedy.
Kennedy went on to win the general election that fall. Television coverage was also influential during the Vietnam War. By the mid-1960s, major networks were broadcasting daily images of the war into virtually every home in the United States. For many viewers, the horrors they saw on television were more significant than the optimistic reports of impending victory issued by government officials and repeated in print accounts.

⇨ In the 1960s in the United States, (A)_________ had a more profound effect on some (B)_________ issues than any other media.
        (A)        (B)
① television political
② radio  economical
③ newspapers political
④ television economical

10.  ①
 1960년대 미국에서 텔레비전이 정치현안에 다른 어떤 매체보다 심대한 영향을 미쳤음을 보여주기 위해 케네디와 닉슨의 TV토론과 베트남 전쟁의 TV 방송을 예로 들고 있다.

【문11】(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말로 가장 적절한 것은?
School uniforms are becoming more and more popular. That's no surprise, because they offer many benefits. They instantly end the powerful social sorting and labeling that come from clothing. If all students are dressed in the same way, they will not be (A)(distracted / contracted) by fashion competition. Some students will also not be excluded or laughed at because they wear the "wrong" clothes. Some people (B)(object / subject) to the "regimentation" of school uniforms, but they do not realize that students already accept a kind of regimentation - wanting to look just like their friends. The difference is that the clothing students choose for themselves creates social barrier; school uniform (C)(wear / tear) those barriers down.
         (A)           (B)          (C)
① contracted ─ object  ─  tear
② contracted ─ subject ─  tear
③ distracted ─ subject ─  wear
④ distracted ─ object  ─  tear

11.  ④
글 전체는 교복의 장점을 논하고 있다. (A) 모든 학생이 같은 복장을 하면, 학생들이 패션경쟁에 의해 정신이 산란해지는 일이 없을 것이다.  distract  :  <마음․ 주의를> 흐트러뜨리다, 딴대로 돌리다 contract :  계약하다, 수축시키다, (병에) 걸리다 (B) 일부 사람들은 학교 교복의 “획일적 통제화”에 반대한다. object to  :  ~에 반대하다  (C) 교복은 그러한 장애물을 해체한다.  tear down : 헐다, 해체하다

【문12】다음 글을 아래와 같이 요약할 때 ____ 부분에 가장 적절한 말은?
For the normal emotional and physical development of infants, sensory and perceptual stimulation is necessary. Healthy babies experience this stimulation while in contact with the mother or other adults who feed, diaper, or wash the infant. However, infants who are born prematurely or are sick miss these experiences during the early weeks of their lives when they live in incubators, an artificial environment devoid of normal stimuli. These babies tend to become listless and seem uninterested in their surroundings. However, when they are stimulated by being handled and spoken to and by being provided with bright objects such as hanging mobiles or pictures, they began to respond by smiling, becoming more active physically, and gaining weight more rapidly.

⇨ According to the passage, premature infants cared for in incubators, when compared with full-term infants, are likely to _______.
① gain weight more rapidly
② receive more natural stimulation
③ respond more to bright objects
④ be less active physically

12.  ④
 본문의 listless(생기․ 활기가 없는)가 요약문에서 less active로 바뀌었다. 유아가 정서적으로 그리고 육체적으로 정상적으로 발달하기 위해 감각 및 지각기관의 자극이 필요한데 미숙아로 태어나 인큐베이터 속에 있는 유아는 이러한 자극이 없어 육체적으로 활기가 덜하고 주변 환경에 관심이 덜 할 수 있다.

【문13】다음 글 바로 앞에 올 수 있는 내용으로 가장 적절한 것은?
You can see this in the way Americans treat their children. Even very young children are given opportunities to make their own choices and express their opinions. A parent will ask a one-year-old child what color balloon he or she wants, which candy bar he or she would prefer, or whether he or she wants to sit next to mommy or daddy. The child's preference will normally be accepted. Through this process, Americans come to consider themselves as equal beings with the right to have their own individual opinions and decisions respected. At the same time, they are also taught to respect the opinions and decisions of others.
① 개인의 의사가 존중되는 미국 사회의 특성
② 미국 사회 특유의 자녀 교육 방법
③ 미국 사회에 있어서 부모의 역할의 중요성
④ 다수결 원칙에 입각한 의사 결정의 필요성

13.  ①
this가 포함된 첫 문장이 중요한 단서를 제공한다. 첫 문장에서 이것(this)을 미국인들이 자녀를 취급하는 방식에서 볼 수 있다고 했는데, 아래에서 미국인들 심지어 한 살 먹은 아이에게도 견해를 물어보고 그 의사를 존중한다고 했으므로, 주어진 글 앞에는 “개인의 의사가 존중되는 미국사회의 특성”이 언급되었을 것이다.

【문14】다음 글을 읽고 아래 질문의 답을 고르시오.
 Dear Ms. Larson,
 Thank you for inquiry of 12 September asking for the latest edition of our catalogue. We are pleased to enclose our latest brochure. Purchases can be made online by visiting our website at mortmonbros.com. We would also like to inform you that we are having a special sale on HP printers all throughout the month and have already included in this mailing an order sheet. Orders can be filled out on paper and sent by post or filled in on our website and submitted electrically. The phone ordering method will take three extra days for shopping but no additional costs will be attached. Our company policy is that all first time customers receive free shipping and handling for their first three months for business, so the new printers would have no extra costs.
 We look forward to welcoming you as our customer.

 Your sincerely,
 John Mortmon
Marketing Director of Mortmon Brothers

* What is the benefit for the first time customers?
① They win a free printer from the company.
② They get free delivery for a few months.
③ They can submit orders through the internet.
④ They can receive a brochure listing new items.

14.  ②
 주어진 글의 마지막 부분에 처음으로 고객이 된 사람에게 제공되는 혜택이 기술되어 있다.

【문15】빈 칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은?
When you want to remind yourself to do something, link that activity to another event that you know will take place. Say you're walking to work and suddenly you realize that your books are (A) at the library tomorrow. Switch your watch from your left to your right wrist. Every time you look at your watch it becomes a (B) that you were supposed to remember something. If you empty your pockets every night, put an unusual item in your pocket to remind yourself to do something before you go to bed. To remember to call your sister for her birthday, pick an object from the kitchen - a fork, perhaps - and put it in your pocket.
    (A)        (B) 
① due ─ reminder
② due ─ recliner
③ ready  ─ reminder
④ ready  ─ recliner

15.  ①
당신이 스스로에게 무엇인가를 해야 한다는 것을 생각나게 하려면 그 일을 일어날 것이라는 것을 당신이 알고 있는 다른 일과 연결하라. 이를테면, 당신은 일터로 걸어가다가 갑자기 당신이 책들이 내일 반납예정일이라는 것을 깨닫게 된다. 왼쪽손목에 차고 있던 시계를 오른쪽손목으로 바꾸어서 차라. 당신은 시계를 볼 때마다, 그것이 무엇인가를 기억해야 한다는 것을 생각나게 해주는 것이 될 것이다. .....

【문16】다음 문장의 밑줄 친 단어의 의미를 아래에 주어진 사전 뜻풀이 가운데에서 고를 때 가장 적절한 것은?
 * Ignorance breeds prejudice.
  breed v.
 1. to have sex and produce young : Many animals breed only at certain times of the year.
 2. to keep animals or plants in order to produce young ones in a controlled way : The rabbits are bred for their long coats.
 3. to be the cause of something : Nothing breeds success like success.
 4. to educate somebody in a particular way as they are growing up : Fear of failure was bred into him at an early age.
① 1.
② 2.
③ 3.
④ 4.

16.  ③
 주어진 문장에서 breed는 “~을 야기하다, ~을 생기게 하다”라는 의미로 쓰였다. “무지가 편견을 생기게 한다.”

【문17】다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?
 Personal qualities generally have either positive or negative connotations. Our attitudes toward such personal qualities are partly personal, partly social, and partly cultural. Some people also feel that gender plays a role, with some qualities being more positively valued by women than by men and vice versa. Such attitudes are not always static, and they can change with changing economic and social circumstances. In some places, during the 1970s, ambition was seen to be bad, and then, during the 1980s, it was seen to be good. During the harsh economic times of the 1990s, a high value was placed on generosity and compassion.
① How Personal Qualities Form
② Changeable Standards of Value on Personal Qualities
③ The Meaning of Personal Qualities
④ Why Some Personal Qualities Have Positive Connotations

17.  ②
 단락의 중간에 있는 문장 “Such attitudes are not always static"이 주제문이다.

【문18】다음 글의 문맥상 밑줄 친 단어의 의미로 가장 가까운 것은?
The time it takes a planet to make one orbit is related to its proximity to the sun.
① closeness to
② attachment to
③ variance from
④ reflection from

18.  ①
proximity 근접, 접근

【문19】다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?
Recently, scientists have discovered that ancient Egyptians mummified animals. Some of the animals found in tombs were pets such as cats, dogs, and rabbits. Scientists believe that animals were mummified using the same technique as for humans. Apparently, the early Egyptians had many household pets and were quite fond of them. They believed their pets would live on into the afterlife to protect and comfort their masters. In addition, other animals have also been discovered. In other tombs, mummified bulls and crocodiles were found. For the ancient Egyptians, these animals were sacred and were the living spirits of gods. The Egyptians took good care of them while they were alive, and when they died, they buried them like kings.
① sacred animal tombs in ancient Egypt
② animal worship in ancient Egyptian funerals
③ the relationship between humans and animals
④ the reasons for animal mummification in ancient Egypt

19.  고대 이집트에서 애완동물과 황소, 악어 등을 미라로 만든 이유를 설명하는 글이다.

【문20】다음 글의 필자가 느끼는 심정으로 가장 적절한 것은?
“I work at home for my children’s sake!” I repeat this to myself until maybe I can believe it. Too often lately I feel like the worst parent on the planet. As a freelance writer, I make my own hours and can work at home with my kids. A good deal, right? Not always. Some days I take four-year-old Hewson to the park. The older kids are at school, I’m staring at a deadline, but I’m eaten up with guilt because I’m not spending time with him. Then I think, Hey, I’m my own boss! We can go to the park! I can work while he plays - the best of both worlds. I grab my cell phone and my laptop, and pull into the park, thinking, Yes! You can have it all! The next thing I know, I’m sitting on a park bench with my laptop balanced on my knees while other mothers keep an eye on my son.
① excited
② bored
③ lonely
④ guilty

20.  ④
필자는 자신을 최악의 부모라고 자주 느끼고 아이와 함께 시간을 보내지 못하기 때문에 죄의식으로 상처받고 있다.

【문21】다음 글의 흐름에 맞게 ( )에 적합한 연결어는?
The scientists are convinced that they, as scientists, possess a number of very admirable human qualities, such as accuracy, observation, reasoning power, intellectual curiosity, tolerance and even humility. (    ), they suppose that these qualities can be imparted to other people, to a certain extent, by teaching them science.
① However
② Furthermore
③ Contrarily
④ Nevertheless

21.  ②
 선택지의 ① However와  ④ Nevertheless는 본질적으로 같은 논리관계를 나타낸다. 첫 문장에서 과학자들이 여러 가지 긍정적 특성을 가지고 있음을 스스로 확신하고 있음을 말하고, 두 번째 문장에는 그러한 좋은 특징이 과학교육을 통해 다른 사람들에게도 전달될 수 있다고 과학자들이 생각한다는 내용이 담겨있다. 과학자들의 긍정적 확신에 또 다른 긍정적 생각이 추가되고 있는 것으로 볼 수 있다. 문맥으로 보아 첫 문장의 The scientists are convinced가  두 번째 문장에서 they suppose라는 표현으로 바뀌었음을 알 수 있다.

【문22】 다음 문장과 의미상 가장 가까운 것은?
Taking notes, even incomplete ones is usually more efficient than relying on one's memory.
① It is usually more efficient to take incomplete notes than to rely on one's memory.
② Because notes are usually incomplete, it is more efficient to rely on one's memory.
③ Taking incomplete notes is usually less efficient than relying on one's memory.
④One's memory is usually more efficient than incomplete notes.

22.  ①
 기록을 하는 것은, 심지어 불완전한 기록을 하는 것도 기억에 의존하는 것보다 일반적으로 더 효율적이다.

【문23】(A), (B), (C)에 들어 갈 어법에 맞는 표현을 골라 짝지은 것은?
 In some areas, the use of English in schools and in the media has contributed (A)(to / for) the decline of minority languages. There (B)(were / have been) about 69,000 speakers of Gaelic in Scotland in 1991, according to that year's census. The language is still used in some schools but speakers have limited legal rights. It is not used in courts, and (C)(plays / playing) no part in the national government.
    (A)       (B)          (C)
① to ─ have been ─ plays
② to ─ were ─ plays
③ for  ─ were ─ playing
④ for  ─ have been ─ playing

23.  ②
 (A) contribute to …의 한 원인이 되다, …에 기여하다 (B) 과거 사실이므로 과거시제를 써야 한다. (C) and 뒤에서 병렬구조를 이룬다. 주어 it은 공통어구

【문24】다음 글에서 “cloning"에 대한 필자의 태도로 가장 적절한 것은?
People seem to forget that nature has been "cloning" since the beginning of time. Identical twins are exactly the same cell-split into two. Despite this, they are different human beings with different "souls". Similarly, through technology we may create a being with identical attributes but cannot clone a soul. If, through cloning, we can eliminate many genetic disorders, then surely this should be welcomed as a wonderful opportunity. Though perfected, there may still be risks, as there are in choosing to vaccinate your child. But the potential benefits may far outweigh the risks. How can we allow ourselves and our children to suffer when there could be a solution?
① neutral
② critical
③ supportive
④ concerned

24.  ③
필자의 주장은 글의 마지막 부분에 기술되어 있다. 복제가 위험이 있긴 하나 잠재적인 혜택이 그것을 능가한다는 것이 필자의 견해이다.

【문25】다음 글의 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?
The second great force behind immigration has been _____________. America has always been a refuge from tyranny. As a nation conceived in liberty, it has held out to the world the promise of respect for human rights. Every time a revolution has failed in Europe, every time a nation has succumbed to tyranny, men and women who love freedom have assembled their families and their belongings and set sail across the sea.
① political oppression
② economic factor
③ flight from poverty
④ the search for freedom of worship

25.  ①
 첫 문장이 주제문이고 나머지 문장은 이를 뒷받침해 주고 있다. 따라서 하위정보를 토대로 상위정보를 완성하는 문제라고 할 수 있다. 정치적 자유를 허락하지 않는 전제정치(tyranny)에 대한 언급으로 보아 이민의 두 번째 원인이 정치적 억압임을 알 수 있다.

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